H. SEARL DUNN, Professor
FREDERICK L. ORTHLIEB, Professor and Chair
ERIK CHEEVER, Associate Professor
ERICH CARR EVERBACH, Associate Professor
LYNNE A. MOLTER, Associate Professor
FARUQ M.A. SIDDIQUI, Associate Professor
SILVIO P. EBERHARDT, Assistant Professor

The professional practice of engineering requires creativity and confidence in applying scientific knowledge and mathematical methods to the solution of technical problems of ever-growing complexity. The pervasiveness of advanced technology within our economic and social infrastructures demands that engineers more fully recognize and take into account potential economic and social consequences that may follow from resolving significant yet analytically well-defined technical issues. A responsibly educated engineer must therefore not only be in confident command of current analytic and design techniques, but also have a thorough understanding of social and economic influences and an abiding appreciation for cultural and humanistic traditions. Our program supports these needs by offering each engineering student the opportunity to acquire a broad yet individualized technical and liberal education. The structure of the Department's curriculum permits engineering majors to devote as much as three eighths of their course work to the humanities and social sciences. About half our majors pursue either a concentration or a double major leading to two degrees, the Bachelor of Science in Engineering and a Bachelor of Arts in a second academic discipline within their four-year course of study.

The Department's physical facilities include laboratories for general instruction and individual student projects in electronics, systems dynamics and control, communications, engineering materials, solid and structural mechanics, fluid mechanics, fossil and solar thermal energy conversion, acoustics, non-linear dynamics, and environmental protection. Within these laboratories is a wide variety of modern measurement equipment configured for computer-assisted data acquisition and process control; data files are directly accessible from anywhere on the college computer network. A computer workstation laboratory with high performance color graphics and industry-standard engineering design, analysis and graphics software is also part of our departmental facilities. Electronics, metal and woodworking shops that support our courses and laboratories are also available for student use.

Our departmental major program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Engineering is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology.

Courses Readily Available to Non-Majors

High Performance Composites (1), Exploring Acoustics (2), Problems in Energy Technology (3), and Art and Science of Structures (7) are designed chiefly for students contemplating only an introduction to engineering. Mechanics (6) is primarily for prospective majors, but other interested students, particularly those preparing for a careers in architecture or biomechanics, are encouraged to enroll. Introduction to Environmental Protection (32), Operations Research (57), Solar Energy Systems (35), Water Quality and Pollution Control (63), Environmental Systems (66), and Environmental Policy (68) appeal to many students majoring in other departments, particularly those pursuing the Environmental Studies concentration. Students interested in computers, including those in the Computer Science concentration, may wish to consider Digital Logic Design (21), Microprocessors and Computer Architecture (22) and Computer Graphics (26). Students majoring in the physical sciences or mathematics may enroll routinely in advanced engineering courses.

Students may major or minor in the External Examination Program in the Engineering Department by taking appropriately related advanced engineering courses in preparation for external examinations. Department faculty also support concentrations in Computer Science and Environmental Studies and a special major with the Program in Linguistics.

Program for Engineering Majors

General departmental requirements fall into three categories: successful completion of at least (i) twelve engineering courses, (ii) four courses in the sciences which must include Physics 3 & 4 or 7 & 8 (taken or begun in the freshman year) and Chemistry 10 (or a more advanced chemistry course), and (iii) four courses in mathematics, including Math 5 and 6 (to be taken in the first year), Math 18, and Math 30 (normally taken in the sophomore year). No courses intended to satisfy these departmental requirements, except those taken Fall semester in the first year, should be taken Credit/No Credit. The unspecified science course in category (ii) should be chosen to complement the student's overall program of study; only courses acceptable for credit toward a major in the offering department are admissible toward an Engineering major. Within category (i), the following core courses are required of all students: Mechanics, Physical Systems Analysis I and II, Experimentation for Engineering Design, Thermofluid Mechanics, and Engineering Design. Of these, the first four are normally taken as follows: Mechanics in the spring semester of first year, Physical Systems Analysis I in the fall semester of sophomore year and the next two in the spring semester of sophomore year. Thermofluid Mechanics is normally taken in the fall of junior year, and Engineering Design, the culminating experience for engineering majors, is taken in the spring of senior year.

Elective Program for Course Majors: In consultation with their advisor, each student devises a program of advanced work in the Department. These programs, normally including six courses, are submitted for Departmental approval as part of the formal application for a major in engineering during the spring semester of sophomore year.

A student's elective program may or may not conform to some traditional or conventional area of engineering specialization, e.g., electrical, mechanical, civil. Thus, for each plan of advanced work, the Department requires a coherent, well-justified program that, in its judgment, meets the student's stated educational objectives.

Typical elective program plans include:

(1) General electrical engineering: Electronic Circuit Applications, Physical Electronics, Semi-conductor Devices and Circuits, Electrodynamics, and Control Theory and Design. Students having an interest in digital systems might replace one or more of these courses with Digital Logic Design, Microprocessors and Computer Architecture, VLSI Design, or Computer Graphics.

(2) General computer engineering: Digital Logic Design, Microprocessors and Computer Architecture, VLSI Design, and Computer Graphics. Students with an interest in computer hardware may include Electronic Circuit Applications, Semiconductor Devices and Circuits, Physical Electronics or Control Theory and Design.

(3) General mechanical engineering: Mechanics of Solids, Engineering Materials, Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Thermal Energy Conversion, Solar Energy Systems, and Control Theory and Design.

(4) General civil and environmental engineering: basic preparation includes Mechanics of Solids, Structural Theory and Design I, Soil and Rock Mechanics, and Water Quality and Pollution Control. Additional courses include Operations Research and Environmental Systems for those interested in the environment or urban planning, or Structural Theory and Design II for those interested in architecture or construction. Other recommended courses include Solar Energy Systems, Fluid Mechanics, and Engineering Materials.

Note that High Performance Composites, Exploring Acoustics, Problems in Energy Technology, Art & Science of Structures, Introduction to Environmental Protection, Swarthmore & the Biosphere, and Environmental Policy are not admissible as technical electives within an Engineering major but may be taken as free electives subject to the 20-Course Rule.

Honors Program in Engineering: Students with a B+ average among courses in engineering, science, and mathematics may apply to stand for honors in engineering. Honors majors must complete the same math, science, and core engineering requirements as in course and accumulate at least 12 full course credits in engineering; an honors thesis taken in the Fall of senior year may substitute for one of the usual six engineering electives. One of the three engineering examinations required for every honors degree in engineering must include E90. Examination is normally offered for two-credit preparations in areas listed following the course descriptions; others are possible by special arrangement.

More specific information about honors and course programs is distributed by the department to prospective engineering majors in December of each year.

Available to classes 1997 onward.


1. High Performance Composites.
Introduction to the structure, properties and performance of modern composites in sports equipment, automotive and aerospace applications. Simple models of material behavior are developed and used to examine products like ski poles, fishing rods, tennis racquets, radial tires and human-powered aircraft. Labs include making and testing a number of polymer and ceramic matrix composites, plus a research project of the student's choice.
Primarily for students not majoring in engineering. High School Physics recommended.
Primary distribution course.
Offered spring semester, 1996; not offered 1997.

2. Exploring Acoustics.
(Also listed as Linguistics 2) A course to provide students with exposure to basic scientific and engineering principles through an exploration of the acoustics of musical instruments, the human voice, structures, and the environment. Emphasis on hands-on analysis with a minimum use of mathematics. For students not majoring in engineering. Includes laboratory.
Spring semester; offered 1997.

3. Problems in Energy Technology.
For students not majoring in science or engineering, this course covers hydropower, windpower, and thermal energy conversion using fossil fuel, nuclear and direct solar energy. Technical, political and socioeconomic aspects are discussed and field trips and laboratory experiences are included.
Primary distribution course.
Fall semester.

5. Engineering Methodology.
A fall half-credit course for those interested in engineering, presenting techniques and tools that engineers use to define, analyze, solve, and report technical problems and an introduction to department facilities. Designed for students who are potential majors as well as those interested only in an introduction to engineering. While E5 is not a required course for prospective engineering majors, it is strongly recommended.
Fall semester.

6. Mechanics.
Fundamental areas of statics and dynamics. Elementary concepts of deformable bodies including stress-strain relations, beam, torsion, and stress transformations. Laboratory work is related to experiments on deformable bodies, and includes a FORTRAN workshop.
Prerequisite: Physics 3 or equivalent.
Primary distribution course.
Spring semester.

7. Art and Science of Structures.
An introduction to the basic principles of structural analysis and design including an emphasis on the historical development of modern structural engineering. Suitable for students planning to study architecture, architectural history, or with an interest in structures. Includes laboratory.
For students not majoring in engineering.
Fall semester; not offered 1995-97.

9. How Things Change.
A study of dynamic systems requiring no formal mathematics. The course will be based upon a Macintosh simulation program (STELLA II) that is entirely icon driven and which relies upon a metaphoric description to envision and model even the most complicated situations. Examples will be taken from many fields of study; representative topics include the dynamics of competing populations, the spread of epidemics, the evolution of business cycles, the operation of automobile cruise control systems, and examples of chaotic systems. Though no knowledge of calculus is necessary, some familiarity with mathematical operations and confidence in using numbers, e.g., birth rates, growth rates, interest rates, etc., is assumed.
Spring semester.

11, 12. Physical Systems Analysis I and II.
The study of engineering phenomena which may be represented by a linear, lumped-parameter model. Ell (fall semester) is oriented mainly toward electrical devices and the development of mathematical techniques for the analysis of their linear behavior. E12 (spring semester) is more concerned with mechanical, thermal, and fluid systems. Includes laboratory. Credit may be given for either semester, or both.
Prerequisites: Math 6 and Physics 4 (or equivalent) or permission of instructor.
E11: Fall semester.
E12: Spring semester.

14. Experimentation for Engineering Design.
Introduction to probability, statistical analysis, measurement errors and their use in experimental design, planning, execution, data reduction and analysis. Techniques of hypothesis testing, single and multivariable linear and nonlinear regression, process simulation and methods of engineering economics. Includes laboratory.
Pre/Co-requisites: E11 and 12. Spring semester.

21. Digital Logic Design.
Systematic techniques for designing combinatorial (time-invariant), sequential (clocked) and asynchronous (non-clocked) digital circuits, based on principles of Boolean algebra. Use of standard TTL logic gates and higher level integrated circuits such as memories, programmable-logic devices, and analog/digital converters. Emphasis on CAD programs for logic simulation and minimization.
Prerequisites: none.
Fall semester.

22. Microprocessors and Computer Architecture.
A tour of today's and tomorrow's computer systems, including RISC and CISC microprocessor instruction sets and addressing modes, interrupts and DMA, peripherals, memory system hierarchy, virtual memory and machine, and networks. Connections between hardware and higher-level languages and operating systems. Parallel and distributed computer systems. The laboratory will include studies of specific machines from microcontrollers to workstations.
Prerequisites: none.
Spring semester, alternate years; offered 1996.

24. VLSI Design.
Design of digital CMOS integrated circuits. Operation of CMOS transistors, CMOS gates and buffers, design rules for layout of circuits, chip fabrication, regular logic arrays, scalability, use of simulation and layout tools, testing of fabricated circuits. A laboratory involves design, simulation, layout and testing of a chip that will be sent out for fabrication.
Prerequisite: E11 and E21.
Spring semester; offered 1997.

26. Computer Graphics.
Techniques used to model and display two-and three-dimensional scenes. Principles of the WIMP (Windows-Icon-Menu-Pointing device) graphical user interface. Topics include 2D and 3D transformations, clipping, hidden surface removal, rendering, representing curves/surfaces/solids, image filtering, lighting, and ray tracing. A laboratory will involve programming user-interface systems and images using the Xll package and PHIGS.
Prerequisite: Familiarity with C.
Spring semester, alternate years; offered 1996.

32. Introduction to Environmental Protection
Primarily for those not majoring in engineering, this course focuses on solutions to environmental problems in the areas of water supply, water pollution, air pollution, and energy supply. Local and global pollution control and solar energy technologies are examined. Public policy developments and alternative perspectives are explored. Methods of computer-based systems analysis are introduced for developing economically effective environmental protection policies.
Spring semester; offered 1996.

35. Solar Energy Systems.
Fundamental physical concepts and system design techniques of solar energy systems. Topics include solar geometry, components of solar radiation, analysis of thermal and photovoltaic solar collectors, energy storage, computer simulation of system performance, computer aided design optimization, and economic feasibility assessment. Includes laboratory.
Prerequisites: E12 or equivalent or consent of instructor.
Fall semester, alternate years; offered 1996.

41. Thermofluid Mechanics.
Introduction to macroscopic thermodynamics; first and second laws, properties of pure substances, applications using system and control volume formulation. Introduction to fluid mechanics; development of conservation theorems, hydrostatics, dynamics of one-dimensional fluid motion with and without friction. Includes laboratory.
Prerequisites: E12 and E14 (or equivalent background).
Fall semester.

57. Operations Research.
(Also listed as Economics 32). Introduces students to computer based modeling and optimization for the solution of complex, multivariable problems such as those relating to efficient manufacturing, environmental pollution control, urban planning, water and food resources, and arms control. Includes case study project.
Prerequisites: elementary linear algebra.
Primary distribution course, Natural Sciences only; and only if enrolled for Engineering 57.
Fall semester, alternate years; offered 1995.

58. Control Theory and Design.
Introduction to the control of engineering systems. Analysis and design of linear control systems using root locus and frequency response techniques. Over-driven operation of first-and second-order controlled systems. Digital control techniques, including analysis of A/D and D/A converters, digital filters, and numerical control algorithms. Includes laboratory.
Prerequisite: E12 or equivalent.
Spring semester.

59. Mechanics of Solids.
Internal stresses and changes of form that occur when forces act on solid bodies or when internal temperature varies. State of stress and strain, strength theories, stability, deflections, and photoelasticity. Elastic and Plastic theories. Includes laboratory.
Prerequisite: E6 or equivalent.
Fall semester.

60. Structural Theory and Design 1.
Fundamental principles of structural mechanics. Statically determinate analysis of frames and trusses. Approximate analysis of indeterminate structures. Virtual work principles. Elements of design of steel and concrete structural members. Includes laboratory.
Prerequisite: E59, or permission of instructor.
Spring semester.

61. Geotechnical Engineering: Theory and Design.
Soil and rock mechanics, including soil and rock formation, soil mineralogy, soil types, compaction, soil hydraulics, consolidation, stresses in soil masses, slope stability and bearing capacity. Application to engineering design problems. Includes laboratory.
Prerequisite: E6 or permission of instructor. May be taken concurrently with E59.
Fall semester, alternate years; offered 1996.

62. Structural Theory and Design II.
Advanced structural analysis. Classical and matrix methods of analysis. Digital computer applications. Design of steel and concrete structures. Includes laboratory.
Prerequisite: E60.
Fall semester, alternate years; offered 1995.

63. Water Quality and Pollution Control.
Elements of water quality management and treatment of wastewaters. Measurement of water quality indicators. Analysis of wastewater treatment processes. Sewage treatment plant design. Computer modeling of the effects of waste discharge on rivers and estuaries. Environmental impact assessment. Laboratory and field studies included.
Prerequisite: E12 or equivalent or consent of instructor.
Fall semester, alternate years; offered 1995.

64. Swarthmore and the Biosphere.
An interdisciplinary seminar-style investigation of the role of Swarthmore College and its community within the biosphere, including an intensive field-based analysis of one major aspect of Swarthmore's interaction with its environment, such as food procurement, waste disposal, or energy use. The selected topic is explored from various perspectives by student project groups, and the class proposes and attempts to implement solutions. Faculty from various departments provide background lectures, lead discussions of approaches outlined in the literature, and coordinate project groups. Classes meet once weekly for lectures, student progress reports, and project planning. Cross-listed in the instructors' departments.

66. Environmental Systems.
Mathematical modeling and systems analysis of problems in the fields of water resources, water quality, air pollution, urban planning and public health. Techniques of optimization including linear and integer programming are used as frameworks for modeling such problems. Dynamic systems simulation methods included. Laboratory included.
Prerequisite: E57, or equivalent.
Spring semester, alternate years, offered 1996.

68. Environmental Policy.
(Also listed as Political Science 43). Topics in environmental analysis, policy formulation and pollution regulation.
Offered when demand and staffing permit.

71. Discrete Time Systems.
Review of mathematical methods and system models for linear continuous time systems. Introduction to difference equations and discrete-time transform theory; the Z-transform and Fourier representation of sequences; fast Fourier transform algorithms. Discrete-time transfer functions and filter design techniques. Laboratory included.
Prerequisite: E12.
Fall semester; not offered 1995.

72, 72(a). Electronic Circuit Applications.
Of interest to a broad range of students in the sciences; E72(a) is a half credit course comprising only the laboratory section of E72. The student will learn the fundamentals of electronic circuit design starting with a brief survey of semiconductor devices including diodes, and bipolar and field effect transistors. The course continues with op-amp applications, including instrumentation and filter design. The use of digital logic is also explored. The second half of the course introduces more advanced topics and more sophisticated design techniques. Throughout the course practical considerations of circuit design and construction are covered, including grounding and shielding and several construction techniques (point-to-point, wire-wrap, printed circuits). Includes laboratory.
Prerequisite : E11 or Physics 8.
Fall semester.

73. Physical Electronics.
Physical properties of semiconductor materials, semiconductor devices, and simple circuits. The physics of electron/hole dynamics; band and transport theory; and electrical, mechanical and optical properties of semiconductor crystals. Devices examined include diodes, transistors, FET's, LED's, lasers and pin photo-detectors. Modeling and fabrication processes. Includes laboratory.
Prerequisites: E11 or Physics 8.
Spring semester, alternate years; offered 1996.

74. Semiconductor Devices and Circuits.
Operation and application of semiconductor devices, including diodes, transistors (bipolar and field effect) and other devices such as CCD's, SCR's, and TRIAC's. The terminal characteristics of the semiconductor devices and circuits, including small signal models of single transistor audio amplifiers, multi-transistor amplifier stages and a transistor-level understanding of operational amplifiers. A comparative analysis of the different logic families, at the transistor level, is given along with power circuits and problems of stability and oscillations in electronic circuits. Includes laboratory.
Prerequisites: E11 or Physics 8.
Spring semester, alternate years; offered 1997.

75, 76. Electromagnetic Theory I and II.
Static and dynamic treatment of engineering applications of Maxwell's equations. Macroscopic field treatment of interactions with dielectric, conducting, and magnetic materials. Analysis of forces and energy storage as the basis of circuit theory. Electromagnetic waves in free space and guidance within media; plane waves and modal propagation. Polarization, reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference. Engineering 76 will include advanced topics in optics and microwaves, such as laser operation, resonators, Gaussian beams, interferometry, anisotropy, nonlinear optics, modulation and detection, and current technologies such as holography. Laboratories for both courses will be oriented toward optical applications using lasers, fiber and integrated optical devices, modulators, nonlinear materials, and solid state detectors.
Prerequisite: E12 or equivalent. E75 or Physics equivalent is a prerequisite for E76.
E75: Fall semester, alternate years; offered 1995.
E76: Spring semester, when demand and staffing permit.

78. Communication Systems.
Theory and design principles of analog and digital communication systems. Topics include frequency domain analysis of signals; signal transmission and filtering; random signals and noise; AM, PM, and FM signals; sampling and pulse modulation; digital signal transmission; PCM; coding; and information theory. Applications to practical systems such as television and data communications. Includes laboratory.
Prerequisite: E12 or equivalent.
Offered when student interest and staffing permit.

81. Thermal Energy Conversion.
Development and application of the principles of thermal energy analysis to energy conversion systems, including cycles and solar energy systems. The concepts of availability, ideal and real mixtures, chemical and nuclear reactions. Includes laboratory.
Prerequisite: E41.
Spring semester, alternate years; offered 1996.

82. Engineering Materials.
Introduction to material structure, properties and processing. Analysis of microstructures, physical properties, thermal and mechanical transformation of metals, polymers, concrete, wood and a variety of composites. Material selection in design, laboratory testing for quality assurance and performance evaluation in service are included through labs and a semester project.
Co-Prerequisite: E59 or permission of instructor.
Fall semester, alternate years; offered 1995.

83. Fluid Mechanics.
Fluid mechanics is treated as a special case of continuum mechanics in the analysis of fluid flow systems. Conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Applications to the study of inviscid and viscous, incompressible and compressible fluids. Includes laboratory.
Prerequisite: E41.
Spring semester, alternate years; offered 1997.

84. Heat Transfer.
Introduction to the physical phenomena involved in heat transfer. Analytical techniques are presented together with empirical results to develop tools for solving problems in heat transfer by conduction, forced and free convection and radiation. Numerical techniques are discussed for the solution of conduction problems. Includes laboratory.
Co-Prerequisite: E41.
Fall semester, alternate years; offered 1995.

90. Engineering Design.
Students work on a design project which is the culminating exercise for all senior Engineering majors. Under the guidance of a faculty member, students investigate a problem of their choice in an area of interest to them. A written report and an oral presentation is required.
Spring semester.

91. Special Topics.
Subject matter dependent upon a group need or individual interest. Normally restricted to seniors and offered only when staff interest and availability make it practicable.

93. Directed Reading or Project.
With the permission of the Department and a willing faculty supervisor, qualified students may do special work with theoretical, experimental, or design emphasis in an area not covered by regular courses.

96. Honors Thesis.
With approval of the Department and a faculty advisor, an honors major may undertake in addition to E90 an Honors Thesis in the Fall semester of senior year. A prospectus of the thesis problem must be submitted and approved not later than the end of junior year.


The Department will arrange External Examinations in the following areas to be prepared for by the combinations of courses indicated. Other preparations are possible by mutual agreement.

Communication Systems
Electromagnetic Theory

Computer Design
Microprocessors and Computer Architecture
Computer Graphics

Continuum Mechanics
Mechanics of Solids
Fluid Mechanics

Control Theory and Digital Laboratory Applications
Computer Graphics Control Theory and Design

Digital Systems
Digital Logic Design Microprocessors and Computer Architecture, VLSI Design, or Computer Graphics

Electronic Circuit Applications
Semiconductor Devices and Circuits

Electromagnetic Theory
Electromagnetic Theory I and II

Environmental Systems
Operations Research
Environmental Systems

Materials Engineering
Mechanics of Solids
Engineering Materials

Structural Analysis and Design
Structural Theory and Design I and II

Thermal Energy Conversion
Thermal Energy Conversion
Heat Transfer

Thermal Solar Systems
Solar Energy Systems
Thermal Energy Conversion or Heat Transfer